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Problem: Pair Programming

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Pair Programming

Input File: standard input
Output File: standard output
Time Limit: 5 seconds
Memory Limit: 256 MB

Students are yelling at each other. Hiding under tables. Standing on top of tables. Re-enacting lightsaber duels with pens. Swinging on the ceiling fans...Walking in you are horrified to find your software class wreaking havoc and in a shambles. Shoulders hunched and palm pressed firmly against your face, you attempt to restore some semblance of order by asking some students to program in pairs.

There are N students in your class. Each student writes in a particular programming language, and uses a particular text editor. You've noticed that a pair of students is cooperative if they write in the same language or use the same editor, or both.

You would like to write a program that finds the largest number of cooperative pairs you can form, where no student is present in more than one pair. Your program should also output a valid set of pairings (see Output and Scoring sections below for further details).

Input

The first line of input will contain a single integer N: the number of students in your class. Students are numbered from 1 to N.

N lines follow, the i-th containing two integers li ei: the language and editor that student i uses. Languages and editors are denoted by integers between 1 and N, inclusive.

Output

The first line of output must contain a single integer A: the maximum number of cooperative pairs that you can form.

A lines must follow. Each of these lines must contain two integers identifying two students that should be paired together. No student's number may appear more than once among these A lines. The order of these lines and the order of students within each line does not matter. If there is more than one largest set of pairings, any valid one will be accepted.

See the Scoring section below for further details.

Sample Input

10
3 6
8 2
4 4
4 7
5 2
5 4
2 1
7 4
9 10
9 10

Sample Output

4
2 5
8 6
3 4
9 10

Explanation

We can pair together

for a total of 4 pairs, which is the most we can form in this case. Note that some languages and some editors are not used by any student.

Subtasks & Constraints

For all subtasks, 1 ≤ N ≤ 1,000,000 and for all 1 ≤ i ≤ N, 1 ≤ li, ei ≤ N.

Scoring

For each test case, you will score 100% if the integer A on the first line of output is correct and you provide a correct set of A cooperative pairings. Otherwise, if the integer A is correct, you will score 40% for that test case even if:

Otherwise, you will score 0% for that test case.

Your score for each subtask will be the minimum score among all testcases in that subtask. Your score for this problem will be the maximum score among all submissions you have made to this problem.

 


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Page generated: 24 May 2019,  3:19am AEST